City Profile: Maputo Maputo is Mozambique’s capital city and largest city of the east African country that borders South Africa, Swaziland, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia and Tanzania in Sub-Saharan Africa. The city of Maputo also serves as the financial, corporate and commercial centre of the country. Approximately 5,4 % of the country’s population lives in Maputo yet 20.2 % of Mozambique’s GDP is generated from this city. Trade, transportation, communication and manufacturing sectors are the most significant sectors in the economy – accounting for 29.6%, 29.5%, and 12.4% of national production respectively. Most of the economic activity of Mozambican society is centralised around agriculture with particular attention to the production of fish, sugar, cashews, cotton, and timber for export. According the United Nations’ Habitat approximately 54% of all Maputo city residents live below the poverty line of US$ 1.50 per day and 70% live in informal settlements. Energy Sector Access to electricity Mozambique is limited to predominately urban areas and is provided by its publically owned electricity company, Electricidade de Mocambique(EDM), who is responsible for the generation, transmission, distribution and sale of electricity in Mozambique. The rural areas, consisting of a large section of the population, rely on tradition energy sources such as biomass. The electricity sector primarily consists of hydroelectric power although plans to diversify in its energy mix are expected due to the discovery of coal reserves and natural gas. The national Ministry of Energy oversees this sector while the National Electricity Council (CNELEC) performs the duty as a regulator. The National Fund for Rural Electrification (FUNAE) supports the ministry and regulator of Mozambique with implementing off-grid projects that aim to support rural electrification. EDM generates 20% of the country’s electricity capacity and receives all the electricity generated by independent power producers (IPP). Hidroeléctrica de Cahora Bassa is an IPP owned by the Mozambican govnerment (92.5%) and REN/Portugal (7.5%). Power generation by HCB power is mainly exported to South Africa via the South African electricity utility Eskom’s transmission grid – HCB is majority owned by Mozambican state (92.5%) and exports 90% of its total generation. Moz Transmission company (MOTRACO) is an ITC owned by EDM, Eskom, and SEB with 33.33% ownership each. Noteworthy policies that form the energy framework rational in Mozambique can be found in the energy strategy (2009), the policy for the development of new and renewable energies 2011-2025 (2011), the strategy of the conversation and sustainable use of biomass energy (2013), the strategy of biofuels (2009), the regulation of biofuels and their mixture and the regulation that established the feed in tariff for new and renewable energies - REFIT (2014).Maputo is home to approximately 1.2 million people, with 91% estimated to live outside the city centre, the historic colonial centre). In 2014, EDM estimated that 91% of Maputo’s population is connected to the grid with 93% using the prepaid method for electricity purchases – this figure is limited to the small number of citizens that reside in the city centre and does not include those living on the outskirts of Maputo. Transport Sector Mozambique is one of the countries in the world with the most underdeveloped infrastructure system. Currently, Mozambique has approximately 30,400 kilometres of highway roads, with only 18 percent being paved. Mozambique’s entire length spans approximately 2000 kilometres and varies between 50 and 600 kilometres in width. The National Highway one (EN1) connects Maputo to the north and the south of the country. There exists no rail lines that beyond Maputo to the north and the ones that do exist in the south are un-serviced and many in complete disrepair. Transportes Lalgy is Mozambique’s largest transport company and operates most of the domestic and freight transport from the centre and the south of the country. In 2017, the Maputo Metropolitan Transport Agency (AMT) was institutionalised with the aims to manage all activities that from part of the transport master plan for greater Maputo area up until 2035. AMT also announced its importation and management of 300 buses for its public transportation services fleet. In addition, an integrated road and rail project, Metro-bus project, with a budget of 1 million US$ includes the importation of 16 second-hand railcars from New Zealand that will service the rail network from Matola and Boane to Maputo and at Maputo Central rail station bus network will become more integrated. The management of the railcars will fall under the private company Fleetrail working in partnership with the port and rail publicly owned company of Mozambique, CFM, which also owns the rail infrastructure. Waste Management Sector Maputo city has had challenges creating a municipal solid waste management system. Maputo also has a low public awareness and participation in recycling activities, increases in waste generation due to increase urban population, limited waste collection coverage and financial unsustainability. Moreover, Maputo city is faced with inadequate infrastructure and equipment, and unsound waste treatment and last disposal schemes. The citizens of Maputo city do not have access to basic urban services and the municipal budget is as low as of US$ 5.0 per capita. Maputo city faces sanitation issues such as lack of drainage; poor collection and disposal of solid waste have been the cause of diarrhoeal diseases, including cholera and the prevalence of malaria. The estimated municipal solid waste generation account for around 1053 tonnes per day which includes household waste, commercial and industrial waste, waste from wet markets and fairs, construction and demolition waste, green waste, waste from sweeping and large household waste. With the urban area of Maputo solid waste is collected from door-to-door and from public containers an then transported directly to final disposal facilities every day or every other day. Private companies are contracted by local authorities or some services provided by the authorities itself. In the semi-urban areas of Maputo city, the solid waste collection is collected irregularly, and rudimentary – with some areas not having any collection services at all. Waste coverage differs completely from urban centre to the semi-urban and out laying areas of Maputo.