city profile: belo horizonte
Brazil´s Nationally Determined Contribution target is 37% and 43% emission reduction below 2005 levels by 2025 and 2030
Belo Horizonte is the capital of the state of Minas Gerais and located in the southeastern region of Brazil. It is the third-largest metropolitan area in the country and has a population of over 2.4 million, with 5.7 million in the official Metropolitan Area (IBGE, 2014). Considering the rather moderate ambition level of Brazil’s NDC, local action in cities play a crucial role for climate change mitigation. Belo Horizonte is one example of an active mid-sized city commited to sustainable development.
Transport: Car and motorcycle ownership in Belo Horizonte has increased signifianclty in recent years as a side effect of growing welfare levels. Accoridingly, the modal share in Belo Horizonte suffered significant changes in the last 17 years: The share of trips by private motor vehicles increased from 20,7% to 36,6% while public transport trips reduced from 44,6% to 28,1%. As the first city in Brazil, Belo Horizonte developed a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan, called PlanMob-BH, in 2013. The plan consists of elements such as a integrated public transport network composed of metro lines and a bus rapid transit (BRT) system with exclusive bus corridors; a bikeway network with the installation of protected bike lanes and a public bicycle sharing system; and a pedestrian facilities network. The BRT system was expected to cut travel times significantly compared to the previous bus system and to provide a safe and comfortable inner city transport means (ITDP, 2014).
Energy: Belo Horizonte conducted a greenhouse gas inventory in 2009 to create a Greenhouse Gas Reduction plan, developing a Sustainable Buildings Certification Programme, which includes the change to efficient sodium vapour lighting and LED lights in all public lighting. Additionally, renewable energy sources from landfills and wastewater treatment are being explored.
Waste management: The greater Belo Horizonte Metropolitan Region (BHMR) with over 5 million inhabitants generates over 7,000 tons of solid waste every day, approximately 50% is going directly to landfills. Waste management in the city is under the jurisdiction of the Municipal Department of Urban Cleaning (Superintendência de Limpeza Urbana (SLU). The goal is to not only reduce waste, but also reducing costs for the public sector and highlighting the importance of social participation - for example involving waste picker cooperatives in the process.
factsheets on energy, transport and waste management
Factsheet: Electric Mobility in Belo Horizonte
The factsheets provide a basic introduction to specific measures in the areas of energy, mobility and waste management, which aims to provide a basket of possible solutions to partner cities.
Factsheet: Electric Mobility in Belo Horizonte
The Low-carbon mobility system was launched in 2016 by the governor of the State of Minas Gerais. The municipality of Belo Horizonte, on the other hand, has already tested and is starting to promote e-taxis and e-buses.
Since 2010 Belo Horizonte has an innovative Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan, called PlanMob-BH, with comprehensive measures related to TOD, BRT and bike solutions, which include the planning and construction of a 23 km BRT system called MOVE BRT, a bike sharing system with 40 stations and 400 bikes, 2 pedestrianized streets, 150 km of bike lanes, Zones 30, Fahrradstraßen, among others.
LEARNING RESOURCES ON MOBILITY, ENERGY AND WASTE MANAGEMENT
E-learning programme builds on the toolbox and factsheets and aims to provide a better understanding of possible actions, highlighting the experiences from the implementation of measures in other cities building on the wealth of knowledge of international experts.
GIVES AN OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT´S PROGRESS
The Urban Pathways Action Tracker provides an overview of the project’s activities in the cities and reflects on the various action areas. The main objective of this is to share learnings with other cities and identify opportunities for synergies with other projects and initiatives.
Urban Pathways conference
Transport & Climate change week
The Urban Pathways Conference took place from 16 to 20 October in Berlin, Germany, with the objective to discuss concrete low-carbon energy, mobility and waste-management solutions to deliver on the New Urban Agenda. This event showcased activities of cities working together on sustainable urban development and helped taking this further into a joint program of action.
Belo Horizonte and Accra are meeting Kochi at the jointly organised GIZ Training week organised for transport practitioners from around the world focusing on urban mobility planning, financing and integration. Highlighting the importance of transport to limit global warming, the second Transport and Climate Change Week fosters knowledge exchange and high-level contacts between transport colleagues from all over the world. To fight climate change together, around 60 transport experts especially from developing and emerging economies gather in Berlin to discuss ways on how to change transport for the better.
24-28 September 2018, Berlin
change maker programme
The Urban Change Maker Programme actively trains and involves motivated junior and senior experts to contribute our joint effort of delivering on the New Urban Agenda with concepts for low-carbon urban energy, mobility and waste management systems.
Bremen - Belo Horizonte
kochi - belo horizonte
Accra - belo horizonte
The partner cities will be supported by exchanging ideas with their peers in other cities who have developed successful urban mobility, energy and resource management solutions. This will focus on the story behind the success on governance, finance and regulatory issues.
regional replication in Latin America
Fahrradstrasse – Example from Brazil – Replication in Latin America
Belo Horizonte has an innovative Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan, called PlanMob-BH, with comprehensive measures including TOD, BRT and Bike solutions. In September of 2013, Belo Horizonte for- malized PlanMob-BH as a guide for improving mobility for the next 20 years. Belo Horizonte becamethe first city in Brazil to have a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan with a long-term vision that links mobility tourban development goals (Secretariat Municipal de Governo BH, 2013).
The plan consists of elements such as an integrated public transport network composed of metro lines and a bus rapid transit (BRT) system with exclusive bus corridors; a bikeway network with the installation of pro- tected bike lanes and a public bicycle sharing system; and a pedestrian facilities network. By 2030, the plan expects that the measures implemented contributes to reductions of 36% in GHG emissions, 25% in travel time and 19% in transport costs (Secretaria Municipal de Governo BH, 2013). A process of review and adjust- ment of the plan started in 2016 and was approved in 2017. The plan contains 176 measures to be implemented until 2030, from which 56% were already implemented until May 2018. Beyond the immediate mobility related issues, Belo Horizonte also recognises these measures as an oppor- tunity to revitalise the downtown area and enhance the quality of life by creating pedestrianised streets and giving the space back to people from cars.
In this context, Belo Horizonte established a partnership with the city of Bremen, Germany to help BH in the implementation of a Zone 30 and a bicycle street (Fahrradstrasse). The main purpose of these mea- sures is to increase the modal share of bicycle that at present represents only 0.4%. Belo Horizonte’s Urban Mobility Plan has the goal to in- crease the bicycle trips to 6% by 2020. In order to achieve this goal, a programme that aims to promote the use of the bicycle as a mean of transportation, called PEDALA BH was created. The Zone 30 pi- lot-project foresees a wide deployment of vertical and horizontal sig- naling, reallocation and repositioning of parking spaces to provide the reduction of speed, and enlargement of sidewalks with the creation of small areas of coexistence for pedes- trians with the insertion of urban furniture. Until 2015, there were 70km of cycling infrastructure in the city. The plan aims at expanding it to a total of 411km by 2020. In this sense, the success of the pilot project would contribute to the replication of the initiative in other parts of city with the goal of reaching the 6% of bicycle trips target by 2020.
Belo Horizonte is really engaged to deliver the pilot-project of a Zone 30. BHTRANS already identified po- tential locations and are planning the implementation of the measure for this year. Figure 1 illustrates the map of the current Zone 30, Fahrradstrasse, bike lanes and bike paths, as well as the pilot-project of Zone 30 and Fahrradstrasse.
policy environment assessment
Policy environment paper brazil
In its NDC, Brazil commits to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 37% below 2005 levels by 2025. The NDC also contains a subsequent indicative contribution to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 43% below 2005 levels in 2030. Compared to the 1990 level this translates to 6% respectively 16% reduction. With this target Brazil is the first major developing country to commit to an absolute GHG reduction below 1990 levels.
The target, however, will already be achieved by the success in fighting deforestation over the past decade. Between 2005 and 2012, Land-Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) related emissions were reduced by over 86% (CAT, 2017, IPCC, 2014). Other sectors, such as energy, transport and industry will even be able to increase their emissions compared to 1990 levels without risking the achievement of the target (CAT, 2017).
From a GHG mitigation perspective Brazil’s NDC target represents a very moderate contribution to global climate mitigation efforts and falls short of delivering on the overall goal of the Paris Agreement. Brazil’s per capita emissions would increase further to an estimated 6.2 tCO2e by 2025 but then decrease to 5.4 by 2030.
Energy: Brazil´s energy demand is constantly increasing, while fossil fuels provide more than half of the energy and renewable biomass and hydropower account for 40%. While Brazil reduced it´s oil import from 42% (1980) to 14% (2002), this comes at the price of domestic oil production and increases of coal import. Transport and Industry are the largest consumers of energy in the country.
Transportation: Brazil has long been exploring sustainable transport options for it´s urbanised regions, developing the first Bus Rapid Transit in Curitiba in 1974. The country is encouraging non-motorised transportation, investing in infrastructure, greenways and bike sharing programmes.
Waste management: The Solid Waste Policy in Brazil was launched in 2010 promotes recycling and reuse of material, providing coloured bins for paper, gas, metal, plastics and organic waste. The Ministries of Environment, Health, Agriculture and Industry explores the mechanism of separate waste collection systems, e.g the disposal of medications, electronics etc.
Policy measures at the local and national level can be critical to the transformation of urban energy, mobility and resource sectors, for example they regulate systems, provide technological standards, generate funding, impose taxes and set policy objectives. As part of the cooperation with the partner cities, Urban Pathways provides on-demand policy advice.
Project scoping paper belo horizonte
One of the core objectives is the development and implementation of projects that help decarbonising urban energy, mobility and resource sectors. The projects concepts that are considered to be viable will be later developed into bankable projects for which funding will be sought.
Belo Horizonte has an innovative Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan, called PlanMob-BH, with comprehensive measures including TOD, BRT and Bike solutions. In September of 2013, Belo Horizonte formalized PlanMob-BH as a guide for improving mobility for the next 20 years. Belo Horizonte became the first city in Brazil to have a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan with a long-term vision that links mobility to urban development goals.
The plan consists of elements such as an integrated public transport network composed of metro lines and a bus rapid transit (BRT) system with exclusive bus corridors; a bikeway network with the installation of protected bike lanes and a public bicycle sharing system; and a pedestrian facilities network. By 2030, the plan expects that the measures implemented contributes to reductions of 36% in GHG emissions, 25% in travel time and 19% in transport costs. A process of review and adjustment of the plan started in 2016 and was approved in 2017. The plan contains 176 measures to be implemented until 2030, from which 56% were already implemented until May 2018.
Beyond the immediate mobility related issues, Belo Horizonte also recognises these measures as an opportunity to revitalise the downtown area and enhance the quality of life by creating pedestrianised streets and giving the space back to people from cars.
Green climate fund
An overview of funding solutions is provided in the toolbox. This section includes updates on the specific funding options that are considered for the partner city.
Green Climate Fund
The GCF is a global fund that support the efforts of developing countries to respond to the challenge of climate change, limiting or reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and adapt to climate change. GCF has a multi layered approach to mobilize climate finance, working directly with the public and private sectors. It is important to note that developing countries are in the driving seat of GCF’s targeting and disbursement of climate finance. National Designated Authorities (NDAs) for each developing country act as the country’s interface with the Fund, and are involved closely in all of GCF’s funding processes.
KfW is one of the world’s leading promotional banks. It is committed to improving economic, social and ecological living conditions all around the world on behalf of the Federal Republic of Germany and the federal states. Its global network includes around 80 local and representative offices in the partner countries (see figure 1). KfW promotes and supports programmes and projects that mainly involve state actors in developing and emerging economies – from their conception and execution to monitoring their success1. Initially, agreements between partner countries and German federal government are made for KfW programmes and projects. KfW supports and advises its partner countries throughout the entire project cycle, from preparation and execution to long after the start of operations. Local partners are responsible for preparing and executing projects. KfW also takes responsibility for systematic quality assurance/evaluation of the project.
CAF is a development bank created in 1970, owned by 19 countries - 17 of Latin America and the Caribbean, Spain and Portugal- as well as 13 private banks in the region. It promotes a sustainable development model through credit operations, non-reimbursable resources, and support in the technical and financial structuring of projects in the public and private sectors of the shareholder countries of Latin America.
SYNERGIES & PARTNERSHIPS WITH OTHER PROJECTS & INITIATIVES
The Implementation Facility coordinates the delivery of the project and creates synergies with other initiatives working in the Urban Pathways areas and regions. The facility focuses on knowledge exchange, co-creation and collaboration with partner projects working in the Urban Pathways cities.
Urban Pathways develops scalable pilot projects in cooperation with the partner cities at a neighbourhood level with an aim to provide a proof of concept of urban energy, mobility and waste management solutions.
Based on the pilot project demonstrators, larger-scale projects will be developed to utilise the CO2mitigation potential of an integrated urban energy, mobility and resource management approach and seize the opportunities for contributions the Sustainable Development Goals. This will be done in close cooperation with finance partners and will be geared towards the Green Climate Fund, the Global Environment Facility and similar sources of funding and financing.