city profile: kochi
India’s Nationally Determined Contribution:
Reduce emission intensity of its GDP by 33% by 2030 compared to 2005 levels
Kochi, formerly known as Cochin, is the second largest city in the south-western Indian state Kerala. Kochi is also a major Indian port-city on the south-west coast. The municipal corporation of Kochi has a population of over 600,000 inhabitants and the metropolitan region is home for over 2 million inhabitants. With rapid urbanisation Kochi, like many other growing Indian cities, faces a pressure to increase the facilities to cater for the movement of its people. The traditional forms of transport in Kochi i.e. waterways, bus transport, walking and cycling, have come under pressure and have become unappealing to the users with improved lifestyles. This has led to a rapid motorisation, both in motorised two-wheelers and personal cars. To reverse the trend and bring back the priority to walking, cycling and public transport, Kochi has developed a comprehensive mobility plan, highlighting the various options for promoting sustainable mobility and people oriented urban planning.
Electricity consumption (commercial, industrial and household) makes up the largest share of GHG emissions in India’s seven largest cities at 55-83% (Ramchandra et al., 2014). The objectives of prominent national initiatives in the (urban) energy sector could be classified into three categories – (a) Monitor and increase the energy-efficiency of residential buildings, while promoting greater uptake of efficient lighting systems such as Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL).
India’s rapid urbanisation between 2005 and 2012 converged with the growth of two-wheeler and car sales by 12% annually. As a result, mode-shares of private vehicles are projected to rise from 24% in 2007 to 46% by 2030. Concurrently, it is also estimated that mode-shares of public and non-motorised transport (NMT) would fall from 46% to 26% in a business-as-usual scenario (Dubash et al., 2013). Being the second most energy-intensive sector after power, transport plays a crucial role in realising India’s mitigation targets. From 1994 to 2000, the sector was responsible for about 23% of India’s GHG emissions (Government of India, 2014). These factors highly necessitate a transition from personal vehicle-based mobility in order to achieve low-carbon urban growth.
India generates 150,000 tonnes of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) per day (Singh, 2018). This quantity is estimated to increase to 377,000 tonnes per day by 2025 (World Bank, 2012). The amount of sewage generated is equally significant at 38 billion litres per year (Ghosh, 2016). Solid waste and waste water together account for between 3-9% of GHG emissions for Indian cities (Ramchandra et al., 2015). Unlike transport and energy, waste management was one of 18 functions devolved from the National and State Government mandates following the 74th Constitutional Amendment in 1992. Accordingly, the responsibility of Solid Waste Management is solely the prerogative of municipalities and local NGOs. However, as was expected, this decentralisation has not resulted in improved service delivery. Presently, 30-40% of total urban waste remains uncollected, while less than 10% is segregated or scientifically treated (Mani & Singh, 2016).
factsheets on energy, transport and waste management
Factsheet: Implementing energy efficiency through Energy Service Companies (ESCOs)
The factsheets provide a basic introduction to specific measures in the areas of energy, mobility and waste management, which aims to provide a basket of possible solutions to partner cities.
Factsheet: Implementing energy efficiency through Energy Service Companies (ESCOs)
Energy efficiency holds untapped potential for energy savings and cost savings for cities’ budgets. Technical energy efficiency measures, however, often require upfront investments and cannot be implemented due to tight public budgets. Municipalities and public authorities also often lack the technical and financial know-how for designing and implementing energy efficiency projects, especially when it requires considerable infrastructure upgrade, and associated operation and maintenance (O&M). Market based solutions such as Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) bridge this gap by providing wide range of services, such as conducting energy audits, identifying appropriate energy efficiency measures, assessing project’s technical and financial feasibility, implementing retrofitting measures, and supervising O&M (Polzin, von Flotow, & Nolden, 2016). ESCOs can be private, public, or non-governmental organisations.
Case Study: Bhubaneswar - India
Factsheet: Construction and demolition waste management
Urbanisation and population growth leads to a massive increase in construction activities for housing, offices, industry and infrastructure. The exploitation of raw materials (gravel, sand, etc.) causes environmental impacts (land use, impacts on water bodies and GHG emissions), specifically when transport distances for construction materials increase due to local shortages in rapidly urbanising areas (CPCB, 2017).
Case Study: Delhi - India
LEARNING RESOURCES ON MOBILITY, ENERGY AND WASTE MANAGEMENT
E-learning programme builds on the toolbox and factsheets and aims to provide a better understanding of possible actions, highlighting the experiences from the implementation of measures in other cities building on the wealth of knowledge of international experts.
GIVES AN OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT´S PROGRESS
The Urban Pathways Action Tracker provides an overview of the project’s activities in the cities and reflects on the various action areas. The main objective of this is to share learnings with other cities and identify opportunities for synergies with other projects and initiatives.
capacity building in kochi
TRANSPORT & CLIMATE CHANGE WEEK
UP LAUNCH IN KOCHI
Urban pathways conference
In cooperation with partners initiatives the GIZ hosts this year’s Transport and Climate Change Week in Berlin from 24th and 28th of September 2018 (https://www.transportweek.org).
This workshop focused on the implementation action in Southeast Asia of the Paris Agreement in the context of the New Urban Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals. The Urban Pathways project works closely with the cities and follow a structured approach to boost Low Carbon Plans for urban mobility, energy and waste management services that deliver on the Paris Agreement and the New Urban Agenda. The project will start working on concrete steps towards a maximum impact with regards to the contribution of urban basic services (mobility, energy and waste management) in cities to global climate change mitigation efforts and sustainable and inclusive urban development.
The Urban Pathways Conference took place from 16 to 20 October in Berlin, Germany, with the objective to discuss concrete low-carbon energy, mobility and waste-management solutions to deliver on the New Urban Agenda. This event showcased activities of cities working together on sustainable urban development and helped taking this further into a joint program of action.
urban change maker programme
The Urban Change Maker Programme actively trains and involves motivated junior and senior experts to contribute our joint effort of delivering on the New Urban Agenda with concepts for low-carbon urban energy, mobility and waste management systems.
Belo horizonte - kochi
The partner cities will be supported by exchanging ideas with their peers in other cities who have developed successful urban mobility, energy and resource management solutions. This will focus on the story behind the success on governance, finance and regulatory issues.
E-rickshaw in Kochi
Electric Rickshaws – Example from India – Replication in Asia
The Indian e-mobility sector has seen steady growth in momentum, especially since the national Ministry of Roads Transport declared intentions to achieve 100% electrification of cars by 2030. Accordingly, the CentralGovernment has pursued multiple action plans, including subsidies on sales of e-vehicles as well as prioritizing setting up charging infrastructure. These efforts have moderately improved Electric Vehicles (EV) uptake across the country. Between 2012 and 2016, the share of EV purchases for all passenger vehicles sold grew from 0% to 1.3% (ICCT, 2016). Particularly, the passenger vehicle segments to have achieved maximum EV adoption have been two-wheelers and three-wheelers. It is estimated that the number of electric two-wheelers presently plying on Indian roads is 450,000 while that for electric rickshaws is over 500,000 (TERI and YES Bank, 2018). The current growth of e-rickshaws market has also attracted the attention of app-based cab services to invest in it. In March 2018, Ola, one of India’s largest app-based transport service aggregators declared its plans to launch a fleet of 10,000 e-rickshaws in threecities (not including Kochi) (Shu, 2018).
The State of Kerala which includes the city of Kochi gave a principle approval for operations of e-rickshaws in 2016. However, except for a few private operators, the e-rickshaws sector in Kochi is still at a nascent stage and yet to reach its potential as mainstream Intermediate Pubic Transport (IPT). Additionally, the sector is presently not organised enough to advocate the policy-related demands of individual operators. This is unlike some larger Indian cities where e-rickshaw fleets have beenoperating since almost a decade. In 2012, the number of e-rickshaws plying in Delhi alone was over 100,000 (Dhanuraj and Madhu, 2014). Such a gap presents an opportunity for the proposed pilot project to demonstrate e-rickshaws as a viable IPT mode in Kochi which is both financially and environmentally sustainable. Theproject also aspires to build synergies with upcoming EV-related policies and programmes currently being drafted by State Government authorities.
policy environment assessment
Policy environment paper India
With a global share of GHGs emission at 4.1%, India ratified the Paris climate agreement on October 2, 2016. India’s NDCs include a broad scope of putting forward and propagating a healthy and sustainable way of living based on traditions and values of conservation and moderation. Though India’s emission intensity of 0.36 kg CO2/ US$ is 60% less compared to developed countries, India is part of the top 10 global emitters, who contribute over 72% of global GHG emissions.
India’s target is to reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35 % by 2030 compared to 2005 levels. The target will be reached through emphasis on renewable energy, promotion of clean energy, enhancing energy efficiency, climate resilient urban centres, sustainable green transportation networks, and through central and state level schemes like Swachh Bharat Mission, Cleaning of rivers, Zero Defect - Zero Effect and Make in India.
India communicates its NDC for the period 2021 to 2030:
1. To reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35% by 2030 from 2005 level.
2. To achieve about 40% cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel based energy resources by 2030 with the help of transfer of technology and low cost international finance including from Green Climate Fund (GCF).
3. To create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent through additional forest and tree cover by 2030.
The National Urban Transport Policy hopes to achieve its objectives with a slew of measures that promote walking, cycling and public transport, focussing on a more equitable allocation of road space. In realising this objective, the central government would, encourage measures that allocate road space on a more equitable basis, with people as its focus rather than motor vehicles. This can be achieved by reserving lanes and corridors exclusively for public transport and non-motorised modes of travel. The policy also mentions introducing suitable provisions in the Motor Vehicles Act and other instruments to enable stringent penalties for violation of measures taken.
Kochi Metro Rail Limited (KMRL) with the vision to provide a mass public transportation system, through government and international funding has implemented “Kochi Metro”, the rail based transportation system to cater to the ever-increasing demand for an efficient public transport system. KMRL has also initiated projects concerning last mile connectivity using electric buses and rickshaws and safe access by focusing on prioritizing NMT/pedestrian projects.
The metro rail started operation in June 2017 and is the fastest completed metro project to date in India. The metro rail is also the first metro in the country to integrate with rail, road and water transport modes. Kochi has a plan for 25.6 km (with 25 stations) in the first phase of the metro construction and by the time of opening 13.4 km (with 11 stations) are operational. The cost for the first Phase of the metro is about INR 55,373 billion (US$ 860 million).
Kochi Metro Rail Limited (KMRL) through National Transportation Planning and Research Centre (NATPAC) has engaged Urban Mass Transit Company (UMTC) to prepare a Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Plan along the proposed metro corridors in Kochi City. The TOD plan would, inter alia, identify all the options available for high-density development along the transit corridors and at transit stations recommending implementation of these measures on priority up to 26 km. The project shall also assess revenue that may be derived from the transit oriented development planning initiatives along the corridor through various value capture techniques.
Policy measures at the local and national level can be critical to the transformation of urban energy, mobility and resource sectors, for example they regulate systems, provide technological standards, generate funding, impose taxes and set policy objectives. As part of the cooperation with the partner cities, Urban Pathways provides on-demand policy advice.
Pilot concept india
One of the core objectives is the development and implementation of projects that help decarbonising urban energy, mobility and resource sectors. The projects concepts that are considered to be viable will be later developed into bankable projects for which funding will be sought.
The State of Kerala which includes the city of Kochi gave a principle approval for operations of e-rickshaws in 2016. However, except for a few private operators, the e-rickshaws sector in Kochi is still at a nascent stage and yet to reach its potential as mainstream Intermediate Pubic Transport (IPT). Additionally, the sector is presently not organised enough to advocate the policy-related demands of individual operators. This is unlike some larger Indian cities where e-rickshaw fleets have been operating since almost a decade. In 2012, the number of e-rickshaws plying in Delhi alone was over 100,000 (Dhanuraj and Madhu, 2014). Such a gap presents an opportunity for the proposed pilot project to demonstrate e-rickshaws as a viable IPT mode in Kochi which is both financially and environmentally sustainable. The project also aspires to build synergies with upcoming EV-related policies and programmes currently being drafted by State Government authorities
green climate fund
An overview of funding solutions is provided in the toolbox. This section includes updates on the specific funding options that are considered for the partner city.
SYNERGIES & PARTNERSHIPS WITH OTHER PROJECTS & INITIATIVES
The Implementation Facility coordinates the delivery of the project and creates synergies with other initiatives working in the Urban Pathways areas and regions. The facility focuses on knowledge exchange, co-creation and collaboration with partner projects working in the Urban Pathways cities.
Urban Pathways develops scalable pilot projects in cooperation with the partner cities at a neighbourhood level with an aim to provide a proof of concept of urban energy, mobility and waste management solutions.
Based on the pilot project demonstrators, larger-scale projects will be developed to utilise the CO2mitigation potential of an integrated urban energy, mobility and resource management approach and seize the opportunities for contributions the Sustainable Development Goals. This will be done in close cooperation with finance partners and will be geared towards the Green Climate Fund, the Global Environment Facility and similar sources of funding and financing.