city profile: Suva
Fiji intends to reduce its emissions 30% compared to a business as usual strategy by 2030.
Fiji’s capital, Suva, is the largest metropolitan area; and is located on the Viti Levu island which hosts about one third of the national population. The 2014 population of Suva is estimated at 182,140 with an annual growth rate of 0.8% (Atlas of Urban Expansion, 2016). According to Phillips and Keen (2016), the urban population of Suva had increased by 5% between the years 2002 and 2010. As the administrative and political capital of Fiji, Suva is experiencing the pressure of rapid urbanization. Like many urban areas in developing countries, Suva is faced with resultants effects of rapid urbanization such as unemployment, inadequate socio-economic services and growing formation of informal settlements.
Urban Transport in Suva
It is interesting to note that unlike the national figures which showed greater share (53%) for non-motorised transport (walking), Suva, has a greater (63%) share for motorized transport. In Suva, public transport provided by buses, mini-buses and taxis forms an integral part of the city’s transport system with bus services being the most used. The buses are old-aged vehicles which are noisy and emit substantial emissions that are environmentally detrimental to city dwellers (Fiji Roads Authority, 2014). In order to promote sustainable transportation in Suva, therefore, the Fiji Roads Authority in collaboration with relevant national and local stakeholders has formulated the Greater Suva Transportation Strategy with the vision “to have an integrated and sustainable transport system that contributes to an inclusive, prosperous and environmentally responsible region” for the period 2015 to 2030. The strategy is expected to address the following key issues: traffic congestion, enforcement and regulation, bus infrastructure and routes, quality transport infrastructure, road safety, driver education and awareness (Fiji Roads Authority, 2014).
Waste Management in Suva
Waste management in Suva is the responsibility of the Suva City Council. In Suva, about 68 tons of waste is generated per day; out of which more than 80% are organic waste (2017). In a bid to improve on its waste management system, the Suva City Council has introduced initiatives to promote waste minimization and 3R (reduce, reuse and recycle) initiatives. The City Council subsidizes the cost of purchasing home compost bins to encourage residents to compost food peelings, grass cutting and yard clippings by subsidizing. The compost manure produced is environmentally friendly and used for gardening and other farming activities (Suva City Council, 2017). A compost processing centre was also established by the Suva City Council for composting of domestic wastes and wastes from public places. The product from the composting centre is sold to the public as soil conditioner for agricultural purposes. The collection of green wastes is done by private contractors who have been engaged by the Council. The Again, The Suva City Council provides recycling bins at strategic locations within the city to promote the separation of recyclable wastes such as aluminum cans, bottles, wrappers and papers. These wastes are then recycled into valuable products such as eco bags which are sold at designated markets in the city. All these initiatives according to the Suva City Council are expected to enhance the city’s efforts to promote cleaner and greener environment.
Energy in Suva
In Suva, grid-based electricity is provided by the Fiji Electricity Authority, which is a vertically integrated state-owned institution. Electricity supplied to the city is largely generated from renewable sources especially hydro.In support of government’s efforts to improve access to modern cleaner energy sources in the city, the Department of Energy in Fiji is promoting biogas technologies as alternative sources of fuel for cooking at the household level (Government of Fiji, 2015). Also, the Fijian government over the years has implemented energy-efficiency initiatives in the city such as labeling of refrigeration appliances and carrying out of public campaigns and sensitization on energy-efficiency (Government of Fiji, 2013).These initiatives are in support of Fiji’s National Energy Policy (2013-2020) which provides a framework for the development of the energy sector in Fiji. The policy aims at improving access to affordable and reliable modern energy for all citizens; establishing environmentally sustainable systems in the energy supply chain of Fiji; and enhancing energy efficiency and use of domestic energy sources so as to reduce the cost of energy imports.
The factsheets provide a basic introduction to specific measures in the areas of energy, mobility and waste management, which aims to provide a basket of possible solutions to partner cities.
learning resources on mobility, energy and waste mangement
E-learning programme builds on the toolbox and factsheets and aims to provide a better understanding of possible actions, highlighting the experiences from the implementation of measures in other cities building on the wealth of knowledge of international experts.
Gives an overview of the project´s progress
The Urban Pathways Action Tracker provides an overview of the project’s activities in the cities and reflects on the various action areas. The main objective of this is to share learnings with other cities and identify opportunities for synergies with other projects and initiatives.
urban pathways conference
The Urban Pathways Conference took place from 16 to 20 October in Berlin, Germany, with the objective to discuss concrete low-carbon energy, mobility and waste-management solutions to deliver on the New Urban Agenda. This event showcased activities of cities working together on sustainable urban development and helped taking this further into a joint program of action.
urban change maker programme
The Urban Change Maker Programme actively trains and involves motivated junior and senior experts to contribute our joint effort of delivering on the New Urban Agenda with concepts for low-carbon urban energy, mobility and waste management systems.
Implementation is the main focus of the project. As result of the structured process of the project we will identify feasible urban energy, mobility and resources management options in our partner cities. We work closely with development bank partners and financing sources, such as the Green Climate Fund towards assessments of the feasibility of concrete implementation projects.
policy environment assessment
POLICY ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT FIJI
Population: 898,760 (2016)
Population Growth rate: 0.73% (2016)
Share of Urban Population: 54% (2016)
Urban Population Growth: 1.4% (2016)
GDP: 4.7 Billion USD (2016)
GDP Growth rate: 0.3% (2016)
GDP Per Capita (current USD): 5,233 USD (2016)
CO2 emissions (total) – 1,169.773 ktCO2 (2014)
CO2 emissions (per capita) – 1.321 mtCO2 (2014)
Fiji is an island country in the South Pacific Ocean consisting of 330 islands and 500 islets, out of which 110 islands are inhabited . The country lies 1,850 km north of Auckland, New Zealand; and 2,800 km north-east of Sydney, Australia. The total land area of Fiji is about 18,700 square kilometres bounded by a huge economic zone of ocean covering 1.3 million square kilometres. The country has a total population of 898,760 as at 2016 growing at an annual rate of 0.73%. The share of the urban population in 2016 was estimated to be 54% with an upward growth rate of 1.4%. Fiji’s capital, Suva, is the largest metropolitan area; and is located on the Viti Levu island which hosts about one third of the national population. Other large cities in Fiji include: Lautoka, Nadi, Labasa, Ba and Levuka. The country’s economic performance over the last decades has been oscillating due to global economic and financial shocks and natural disasters. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Fiji was projected at 4.7 Billion USD in 2016 with a growth rate of 0.3% and a GDP per capita of 5,233 USD. As a country whose economy has experienced unstable growth as a result of natural shocks possibly caused by climate change, Fiji has committed to promoting a sustainable development that inures to the general wellbeing of its citizens.
The Fiji National Energy Policy (2013-2020) provides a framework for the development of the energy sector in Fiji. The policy aims at improving access to affordable and reliable modern energy for all citizens; establishing environmentally sustainable systems in the energy supply chain of Fiji; and enhancing energy efficiency and use of domestic energy sources so as to reduce the cost of energy imports. In Fiji, electricity access is estimated to cover about 80% of the population. As illustrated earlier in this paper, electricity is generated largely from renewable sources with potentials for increasing this share. The transport sector as reported in the Fiji National Energy Policy, consumes the chunk of imported fossil fuels into the country. The Policy in this regard advocates for alternative cleaner sources of fuel such as biofuel, electricity and gas to power the transport sector. Energy governance in Fiji, according to the Energy Policy, is complex and made up of several institutions and agencies who play varied roles and responsibilities ranging from generation, transportation, distribution, regulation and setting of tariffs. Grid-based electricity in Fiji is provided by the Fiji Electricity Authority which is a vertically integrated state-owned institution. Other energy sector players include: The Ministry of Works, Transport, and Public Utilities; the Ministry of Tourism and Public Enterprises; the Ministry of Finance and National Planning; the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation; the Fiji Commerce Commission; and the Land Transport Authority. Private sector involvement in the energy sector in Fiji is limited; as such the Energy Policy encourages private investments into large-scale electricity generation and small-scale grid-connected renewable electricity generation.
Fiji’s first national household travel survey conducted in 2015 revealed that 53% of all recorded trips were made entirely on foot, whilst trips made by public transport (using buses and mini-buses) accounted for 17%, private vehicle 17%, and taxi 6%. Other modes used by respondents include horses and boats. These figures suggest that road transport remains the most dominant motorized transport mode in Fiji. It is interesting to note that unlike the national figures which showed greater share (53%) for non-motorised transport (walking), urban areas in Fiji such as Suva, rather recorded greater use (63%) for motorized transport. In Suva, for instance, public transport provided by buses, mini-buses and taxis forms an integral part of the city’s transport system with bus services being the most used. The buses are reported in the Greater Suva Transportation Strategy, as old-aged vehicles which are noisy and emit substantial emissions that are environmentally detrimental to city dwellers. Like many other developing countries, Fiji is experiencing increasing vehicle ownership with a 43% increase in vehicle registration from 2002 to 2012. The road transport sector in Fiji is under the oversight of the Fiji Road Authority which was established in 2012 by a Government Decree. The Authority has the responsibility to develop all roads used for public transport as well as public jetties. Other stakeholder institutions relevant for the overall development of the transport sector in Fiji include: The Ministry of Finance; the Ministry of Works, Transport and Public Utilities; and the Ministry of Local Government, Urban Development, Housing and Environment.
In Fiji, guidelines for solid waste management are stipulated in the country’s National Solid Waste Management Strategy (2011– 2014). The policy strategy focused on building communities that are informed, responsible and committed to sustainably manage solid waste. The goal of this policy is to “increase the proportion of solid waste that is managed in a cost effective, financially sustainable, legally-compliant and environmentally sound manner”. The responsibility of solid waste management lies with the various city and town councils which are expected to deliver waste services within their respective jurisdictions. The City Council manages the collection, transportation and disposal of refuse generated at the household and institutional levels. At the national level, the Department of Environment under the Ministry of Local Government, Urban Development, Housing and Environment plays control and guidance roles in the management of waste and pollution. Apart from this department, there are other institutions which are legally mandated to exercise some responsibilities in managing waste; these include: the Central Board of Health (CBH), under the Ministry of Health whose responsibility is to collect, treat, and dispose biomedical waste; and a host of private sector contractors who are engaged in waste collection and transportation as well as management of landfill site.
Policy measures at the local and national level can be critical to the transformation of urban energy, mobility and resource sectors, for example they regulate systems, provide technological standards, generate funding, impose taxes and set policy objectives. As part of the cooperation with the partner cities, Urban Pathways provides on-demand policy advice.
One of the core objectives is the development and implementation of projects that help decarbonising urban energy, mobility and resource sectors. The projects concepts that are considered to be viable will be later developed into bankable projects for which funding will be sought.
SYNERGIES & PARTNERSHIPS WITH OTER PROJECTS AND INITIATIVES
The Implementation Facility coordinates the delivery of the project and creates synergies with other initiatives working in the Urban Pathways areas and regions. The facility focuses on knowledge exchange, co-creation and collaboration with partner projects working in the Urban Pathways cities.
Steps to action
The Action Plans summarise key on-going initiatives and identify opportunities for further action with a focus on cross-sectoral synergies and policy interactions between the local and national level.
Urban Pathways develops scalable pilot projects in cooperation with the partner cities at a neighbourhood level with an aim to provide a proof of concept of urban energy, mobility and waste management solutions.
Based on the pilot project demonstrators, larger-scale projects will be developed to utilise the CO2mitigation potential of an integrated urban energy, mobility and resource management approach and seize the opportunities for contributions the Sustainable Development Goals. This will be done in close cooperation with finance partners and will be geared towards the Green Climate Fund, the Global Environment Facility and similar sources of funding and financing.