Ecuador - Cuenca
The Urban Pathways Implementation Tracker is tracking the Projects Progress
In its Intended National Determined Contributions, Ecuador commits to reduce by 2025 its emissions in the energy sector in 20,4% - 25% below the 2011 levels. The government states that with the proper availability of resources and support from the international community, Ecuador could reduce its emissions in the sector in up to 45,8% (Ecuadorian Government, 2015).
According to the National GHG Inventory, in 2012 Ecuador produced 80.627 Gg CO2-eq, representing only 0,15% globally. Latin America generates 11% of the total GHG emissions. The sources of GHG emissions in Ecuador are, in order of importance, the energy sector (47%), Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) (25%), agriculture (18%), industry (5%) and waste (4%) (MAE, 2017). The energy sector produced 37.594,03 GgCO2-eq in 2012, which accounts for 47% of national emissions. Between 1994 and 2012 the GHG emissions of this sector increased in 151%. Transport is the most pollutant subsector with 46% of the sector emissions and 21% of national emissions. It is followed by the energy industry with 32% (MAE, 2017).
The transport generated 16.977,02 GgCO2-eq in 2012 with an increase of 123% in relation to 1994. 86% of the energy is used by terrestrial transport, which runs mostly on fossil fuels (gasoline and diesel). Almost 2 million vehicles were registered in 2015, which in comparison to 2010 represents an increase of 57%. 28% of the registered vehicles are older than 12 years (INEC, 2016).
The electricity generation emitted 12.032,44 GgCO2-eq in 2012. In 2015 26.462 GWh of electricity were produced, from which 52% came from renewable sources, mainly from hydroelectric power plants, and the rest from thermoelectric power. The contribution of other renewable sources was very low with approximately 2%, from which the majority comes from biomass (MAE, 2017). However, the studies conducted by the national government to assess the generation potential of different renewable sources show that the solar energy potential in Ecuador is 911 MW and only 1MW is being produced, wind power potential is 884 MW, from which only 2,1% is being used and geothermal energy has a potential of 952 MW, which has not been exploited at all (MAE, UNDP, & FOCAM, 2015).
The waste sector produced 3.377,83 GgCO2-eq in 2012, which accounts for 4% of national emissions. More than 80% of which comes from solid waste. Between 1994 and 2012 the GHG emissions of the waste sector increased in 136%. 12.450 tonnes of solid waste were generated every day in 2016, from which 61% was organic waste, 11% plastic, 9% paper and 2,6% glass. Solid waste management in Ecuador is a competence of the municipal authorities. 125 out of 221 municipalities (57%) dispose their solid waste in open-air land-fills, being responsible for the pollution of air, soil and water, as well as for the health problems of the population and in particular of informal waste pickers.